EC Healthcare (Stock Code: 2138)

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors

Refractive error is a very common vision problem. The cornea and lens at the front of the eye focus the light coming into the eye and project it accurately onto the retina, forming a clear image. When the eye develops at different lengths, the light is not properly focused on the retina and the image is blurred, leading to reduced and incomplete vision and various refractive error conditions, such as myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and astigmatism.

There are many factors that contribute to the formation of refractive conditions, including both genetic and environmental factors, such as improper use of eyes, which may lead to a lengthening of the eye axis and thus myopia. The risk of refractive error is higher if there is a history of refractive error in the family. Common corrective methods and treatments include spectacles/contact lenses, IOL implant and laser refractive surgery.

Types of Refractive Error

normal eye ball

Myopia (Short-sightedness)

Myopia is when the eyeball is too long or the lens is too thick, which affects the ability to focus and allows light to fall in front of the retina, causing the eye to see blurred images in the distance, while close ones are clearly visible. This is where concave lenses are required to correct, pushing the focus of the light towards the retina to improve the condition. Genetic factor and excessive near work e.g. looking at electronic devices for prolonged duration can cause myopia progression in a growing eyeball.



Astigmatism is chiefly caused by the irregular cornea, the vertical curvature of which is different from the horizontal one, resulting in a deviation of refraction. As a result, the light is not accurately focused on the retina. Objects indeed look blurry, making it harder for patients to see clearly. Prolonged concentration could lead to eye strain. Most astigmatic defects are congenital or inherited.


Hyperopia (Long-sightedness)

A long-sighted or hyperopic eye is usually caused by the fact that the eye is naturally too short and the light entering the eye is focused behind the retina, making it appear blurred when looking at near objects, but not when seeing things afar. At a young age, the ciliary muscles are strong enough to counteract mild hyperopia, so one can still see things more clearly from a distance. The ciliary muscle, however, degenerates with age, and gradually distant and near objects look blurry. Yet most hyperopic cases are congenital and common in children under six years old as children's eyes will grow and then long-sightedness will diminish.



Presbyopia is due to gradual hardening of the lens, reduced elasticity and slow degeneration of the ciliary muscle, resulting in a weakening of the eye's ability to adjust to near focus and blurred vision at close range. The condition usually gets worse with age and starts to appear after the age of 40 to 45.

Symptoms of Refractive Error

屈光不正症狀 視野模糊

Blurred or hazy vision

屈光不正 頭痛和眼睛疲勞

Headache and eye strain

遠視矯正 閱讀困難

Reading difficulties

屈光不正治療 眼睛出現重影

Double vision

近視矯正 看見強光外有光暈

Halos around bright lights


If these symptoms are not corrected, they may affect your daily life. Consult an ophthalmologist or optometrist immediately.

Correction Method


An eye examination by an ophthalmologist or optometrist is required, followed by the following correction methods:

近視遠視矯正 配戴眼鏡

Glasses Prescription

Different types of lenses are available on the market and should be fitted according to different vision conditions:


Contact lenses

There are also different types of contact lenses and lenses with the right corrective features:

老花治療 人工晶體置

Lens exchange

The principle is to apply a minimally invasive method to replace the eye’s natural lens with a suitable artificial intraocular lens (IOL) to obtain clear vision. The advantages of the procedure include rapid visual recovery, predictable outcome, preservation of natural cornea and its natural shape and prevention of cataracts. Suitable candidates include people with high degree of myopia and hyperopia, astigmatism or presbyopia.

近視散光矯正 激光矯視

Laser vision correction surgery

Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) is a new generation of corneal refractive procedure approved by FDA. Supplied with Carl Zeiss VisuMax Femtosecond Laser, doctors are able to correct the vision of patients with myopia and astigmatism. Moreover, the technology is faster, safer and promises a better quality than the conventional LASIK.

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